Composition of honey

Because honey inherits plants properties, its color, aroma, flavor, density, and physical and chemical properties depend on the flowers used by bees. As a result, the nutritional values and profiles vary accordingly and can thus influence the value of a specific honey for health promoting purposes. 

Honey is essentially concentrated aqueous solution of inverted sugars, but it also contains a very complex mixture of other saccharides, proteins, enzymes, amino acids, organic acids, polyphenols, and carotenoid- like substances, Maillard reaction products, vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates constitute about 95 to 97% of the dry weight of honey. Fructose and glucose are the most predominant sugars present and are responsible for most of the physical and nutritional characteristics of honey. Smaller quantities of other sugars are also present such as disaccharides, trisaccharides and oligosaccharides that are formed during the ripening and storage effects of bee enzymes and the acids of honey.

Water is quantitatively the second most important component of honey. Its content depends on a number of environmental factors during production such as weather and humidity inside the hive, but also on nectar conditions and treatment of honey during extraction and storage. The protein content of honey is roughly 0.5% of which are mainly enzymes and free amino acids.


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